List of goals, standards, and benchmarks

Goal 1
Demonstrate increasing competence in oral communication (listening and speaking).

Learning Standard 1.A
Demonstrate understanding through age-appropriate responses.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Perform one-step directions stated orally (e.g., “Throw your paper towel in the trash can.”).Perform two-step directions stated orally (e.g., “Get your coats on and line up to go outside.”).Perform three-step directions stated orally (e.g., “Put your paper in your cubby, wash your hands, and come sit on the rug.”).
Answer simple questions stated orally with a simple reply (e.g., “yes,” “no”).Respond to simple questions stated orally with appropriate actions (e.g., “Did you remember to wash your hands?” and the child goes to the sink and washes hands).Respond to simple questions stated orally with appropriate actions and comments (e.g., “Did you remember to wash your hands?” and the child says “Oh, I forgot!” and goes to the sink and washes hands).
Make one comment that is related to the topic of the conversation or discussion (e.g., “I have a dog, too.”).Make more than one comment related to the topic of the conversation or discussion (e.g., “I have a dog, too. His name is Champ.”).Make comments and ask questions that are related to the topic of the conversation or discussion (e.g., “I have a dog, too. His name is Champ. What’s your dog’s name?”).
Look at a person’s face or body language and ask how s/he feels (e.g., “What’s wrong with her, teacher? Did she get hurt?”).Look at a person’s face to determine how they feel (e.g., “She looks mad.”).Look at a person’s body language to determine how they are feeling (e.g., “He’s sitting there all by himself. I think he’s sad, teacher.”).
Learning Standard 1.B
Communicate effectively using language appropriate to the situation and audience.

Example Performance Descriptors

Example Performance Descriptors
EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Ask for help when needed.Use language to interact socially with others during various times of the day (e.g., group time, center time, outdoor play, meal time).Use language to influence the behavior of others (e.g., “That hurt when you pushed into me.”).
With teacher assistance, tell something to peers and adults in small- and whole-group situations about age-appropriate topics (e.g., Teacher: “Can you tell us what your idea is?” Child to group in block area: “I want to build a big boat.”)With teacher assistance, converse with peers and adults (with one back-and-forth exchange) in small- and whole-group situations about age-appropriate topics (e.g., Child to another child: “My Grandma lives in Florida. Where does your Grandma live?” Other child: “In Chicago.” First child: “Do you go see her there?”).With teacher assistance, converse with peers and adults (with more than one back-and-forth exchange) in small- and whole-group situations about age-appropriate topics (e.g., Teacher: “How many of you played in the snow yesterday?” Child: “I did. I went sledding.” Another child: “Me too! I saw you there.” First child: “I was with my Dad and sister. Who were you with?” Second child: “My Mom. My Dad was at work. I got really cold.” First child: “Me too!”).
Use one appropriate conversational skill, such as listening to others, making appropriate eye contact, or taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion (e.g., in the library, yells to friend, “Hey, wanna read this book together? It’s my favorite.” When friend joins him, he looks at his friend but does all of the talking.).Use two appropriate conversational skills, such as listening to others, making appropriate eye contact, or taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion (e.g., while pretending to cook in the dramatic play area, child says, “Pretend we’re the sisters.” Other child says, “I don’t want to be a sister. I want to be the Mom.” Other child replies without looking at her, “But you have to be the sister. We don’t have a Mom.” The other child leaves the area.).Use more than two appropriate conversational skills, such as listening to others, making appropriate eye contact, and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion (e.g., at snack time, talking about seeing the latest “Cars” movie and looking at each other, listening, and taking turns speaking).
Learning Standard 1.C
Use language to convey information and ideas.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, tell about a favorite toy or other object during a show-and-tell experience or when talking to a teacher at arrival time (e.g., “It’s my new stuffed turtle. See, his head goes in and out.”).With teacher assistance, tell about a family experience at home or a special family event (e.g., “It was my baby sister’s birthday. We had a cake, and she smooshed it all over her face.”).Share information about a personal experience and, with teacher assistance, provide additional detail (Child: “I’m going to my aunt’s house for a barbecue. I hope we have hot dogs.” Teacher: “What else do you think you’ll have?” Child: “Maybe chips. And popsicles.” Teacher: “Do you like popsicles? What flavor?” Child: “I like the orange ones.”).
Learning Standard 1.D
Speak using conventions of Standard English.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, speak in simple sentences that are usually, though not always, grammatically correct.With teacher assistance, speak in sentences that use regular plural nouns by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes) in speaking.With teacher assistance, speak in sentences that use an increasing number of pronouns (e.g., she, he, her, him, their, his, our, myself, yourself, herself, mine, me, you), though not always appropriately.
Use negatives (no, not) appropriately.Add /ed/ to words to indicate past tense (e.g., walk, walked; rain, rained), though not always appropriately, and begin to use past tense negatives (wasn’t, weren’t), though not always appropriately.Use irregular verbs (e.g., ate, sang, swam) and nouns (mice, geese), though not always appropriately.
Use one or two of the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with) in speaking.Use three or four of the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with) in speaking.Use more than four of the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with) in speaking.
Answer and ask questions that begin with “who” or “what”.Answer and ask questions that begin with “where” or “when”.Answer and ask questions that begin with “who”, “what”, “where”, “when”, “why”, and “how”.
Learning Standard 1.E
Use increasingly complex phrases, sentences, and vocabulary.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, make sentences more complex by adding modifiers or auxiliary verbs (e.g., “I want the sparkly one.” “He was running.”).With teacher assistance, combine two short sentences (e.g., “I have a dog. He can jump.”) into one longer sentence (“I have a dog, and he can jump.”).With teacher assistance, use complex sentences to express more complicated relationships (e.g., “When my Mom comes, I’m going to Target.”).
With teacher assistance, repeat new words that have been heard aloud (e.g., Child: “What kind of dinosaur is it again?” Teacher: “Tyrannosaurus rex.” Child: “Oh yeah, Tyrannosaurus rex.”).Ask questions about unfamiliar words (e.g., “What does mean?”).With teacher assistance, attempt to use new words that have been heard aloud in one’s own speaking (e.g., “I saw a gigantic bug outside.”).
With teacher assistance, sort objects into categories (e.g., clothing, toys, food) to gain an understanding of the underlying concepts.With teacher assistance, begin to label sorted categories of objects (e.g., “I put all of the blue blocks together.”).With teacher assistance, label and describe categories of objects (e.g., “These are all the fruits. You can eat them.”).
With teacher assistance, use descriptive words to explain how a familiar person, place, or thing looks (e.g., describing a pet or a favorite food).With teacher assistance, use descriptive words to explain how a familiar person, place, or thing looks and feels (e.g., describing a pet or a favorite food).With teacher assistance, use descriptive words to explain how a familiar person, place, or thing looks and feels, as well as describing how it sounds, smells, and/or tastes (e.g., describing a pet or a favorite food).
Goal 2
Demonstrate understanding and enjoyment of literature.

Learning Standard 2.A
Demonstrate interest in stories and books.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Show interest in reading or in written text by enjoying listening to books read aloud.Show interest in reading or in written text by asking to be read to.Show interest in reading or in written text by asking the meaning of something that’s written.
Make a comment while looking at the pictures in a book.Describe what they see while looking at the pictures in a book.Tell a story while looking at the pictures in a book.
Incorporate books into dramatic play, such as reading to a baby doll or stuffed animal.Incorporate books and other written materials into dramatic play, such as reading from a real or pretend menu.Incorporate books and other written materials into dramatic play on a regular basis.
Learning Standard 2.B
Recognize key ideas and details in stories.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, ask and answer simple questions about a story related to a particular character, action, or picture in the storybook.With teacher assistance, ask and answer simple questions about a story by describing what happened.With teacher assistance, ask and answer simple questions about a story by telling how a particular character might feel or predicting what might happen next.
With teacher assistance, use props (e.g., pictures, puppets, flannel pieces) to retell a well-known story with one or two correct details.With teacher assistance, use props (e.g., pictures, puppets, flannel pieces) to retell a well-known story with more than two correct details.With teacher assistance, use props (e.g., pictures, puppets, flannel pieces) to retell a well-known story with most of the correct details in the flow of the story.
With teacher assistance, recall something about one main character in the story (e.g., it’s a dog; he’s red).With teacher assistance, recall something about more than one main character in the story.With teacher assistance, recall most of the main character(s) in the story and tell something about them.
Learning Standard 2.C
Recognize concepts of books.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Enjoy listening to and pretending to read different types of texts (e.g., picture books and predictable books with repetitive patterns).Enjoy listening to and pretending to read different types of texts (e.g., simple storybooks).Enjoy listening to and pretending to read different types of texts (e.g., more complex and lengthy storybooks or books with poems, rhymes, and/or songs).
Hold books with front cover facing up.Turn pages correctly, moving from front of book to the back.Look at page on the left then page on the right.
With teacher assistance, begin to show interest when told about the role of an author or illustrator (e.g., sees similarities in Eric Carle books).With teacher assistance, respond appropriately to questions such as “What do we call the name of the person who writes the book?”With teacher assistance, respond appropriately to questions such as “What do we call the name of the person who writes the book and the person who draws the pictures?”
Learning Standard 2.D
Establish personal connections with books.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, talk about the pictures in a book (e.g., describe what they see on each page, tell how the characters look).With teacher assistance, make personal comments about how the pictures are like something in their lives.With teacher assistance, make personal comments about how the story is like something in their lives.
With teacher assistance, discuss how the pictures in two books are alike and/or different (e.g., noticing that photographs of real animals are used in one book and drawings are used in another).With teacher assistance, discuss how the characters in two books are alike and/or different.With teacher assistance, discuss how the plot, storyline, or actions in two books are alike and/or different.
Goal 3
Demonstrate interest in and understanding of informational text.

Learning Standard 3.A
Recognize key ideas and details in nonfiction text.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, look at the pictures or text in a nonfiction book.With teacher assistance, ask and answer simple questions about the pictures or text in a nonfiction book.With teacher assistance, look at pictures in an informational book to find an answer to a question (e.g., looking to see what a tadpole looks like and how it is different from a frog).
With teacher assistance, identify one important fact in a nonfiction book heard read aloud.With teacher assistance, identify more than one important fact from a nonfiction book heard read aloud.With teacher assistance, recall important facts from a nonfiction book heard read aloud.
Learning Standard 3.B
Recognize features of nonfiction books.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, talk about how the pictures in two books about the same topic are alike and different (e.g., noticing that photographs are used in one book and drawings in another book on the same topic).With teacher assistance, talk about how the facts in two books about the same topic are alike and different (e.g., in two books about construction vehicles, notice that one includes two kinds of dump trucks).With teacher assistance, talk about how the pictures and facts in two books about the same topic are alike and different (e.g., in two books about birds, notice that they both have many birds with red beaks and show different kinds of nests).
Goal 4
Demonstrate increasing awareness of and competence in emergent reading skills and abilities.

Learning Standard 4.A
Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Identify that labels and signs in the classroom are words.Ask to have words read (e.g., “What does this say?”).Seek out print to gather information (e.g., check the attendance chart to see who is at school today; check the job chart to see whose turn it is to feed the fish).
During shared reading experiences, practice tracking from page to page with the group.During shared reading experiences, practice tracking print from top to bottom of the page.During shared reading experiences, practice tracking print from left to right and top to bottom of the page.
Point to one word (e.g., “Can you show me just one word?).Correctly identify that two words are presented.Count number of words on a page or in a line of print in a book containing just a few words on the page (e.g., “How many words are on this page? Can you count them?”).
Point to a single letter (e.g., “Can you show me just one letter?”).Count number of letters in own name (e.g., “How many letters are in your name? Can you count them?”).Count number of letters in one or more friends’ or family members’ names (e.g., “How many letters are in this name? Can you count them?”).
Distinguish one letter from one numeral.Distinguish two or three letters from two or three numerals.Sort more than three letters and numerals into separate groups.
Learning Standard 4.B
Demonstrate an emerging knowledge and understanding of the alphabet.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, sing or chant part of the alphabet with others.With teacher assistance, sing or chant part of the alphabet alone or with others.With teacher assistance, sing, chant, or recite the alphabet alone or with others.
Point to and name some letters in own name.Point to and name most letters in own name.Point to and name letters in own name and some other upper/ lowercase letters.
With teacher assistance, engage in letter sorting and matching activities (e.g., find two magnetic letters that look exactly the same).With teacher assistance, engage in letter sorting and matching activities (e.g., from a small container of letters, locate all the m’s).With teacher assistance, engage in letter sorting and matching activities (e.g., locate letters that are and are not in own name).
With teacher assistance, use a small group of letters that represent both upper and lower case (e.g., Ss, Mm, Oo, Pp) to match one upper- and lowercase letter (may be from own name).With teacher assistance, use a small group of letters that represent both upper and lower case (e.g., Ss, Mm, Oo, Pp) to match two to three upper- and lowercase letters.With teacher assistance, use a small group of letters that represent both upper and lower case (e.g., Ss, Mm, Oo, Pp) to match more than three upper- and lowercase letters.
Learning Standard 4.C
Demonstrate an emerging understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Recognize words forming sentences as s/he dictates to the teacher.Show awareness of words in a sentence (e.g., clap each word in a sentence).Indicate the number of words in a sentence (e.g., count each word in a sentence).
With teacher assistance, recite finger plays, chants, rhymes, and poems containing rhyming words.With teacher assistance, provide rhyming words in songs, poems, or books with a rhyming pattern (e.g., “Jack and Jill went up the .”).With teacher assistance, identify rhymes in songs, poems, or books (e.g., “Hey, that sounds like ‘whale’ – ‘pail’, ‘whale’.”).
Provide second syllable for common words when teacher provides the first syllable (e.g., “I am holding a pen .” Child says “cil” to make the word “pencil”.).Show awareness of syllables in a word (e.g., clap each syllable in a word).Indicate the number of syllables in a word (e.g., count or clap each syllable in a word).
With teacher assistance, respond when called by first sound of his/ her name (e.g., “Whose name begins with ‘BBBB’?”).With teacher assistance, substitute beginning sound of a word to say a new word or nonsense word (e.g., cat, hat, mat, sat; Heather, weather, meather, seather).With teacher assistance, identify the first letter in a word or name that s/he is attempting to write (e.g., “What sound does cat begin with?” “KKKK” “Yes, a K does make that sound. So, does a C.”)
With teacher assistance, respond when teacher stretches the sounds of his/her name. With teacher assistance, state word when teacher stretches the sounds (e.g., “Whose turn is it to line up after you? Ssssss-aaaaaammmm.” Child says “Sam.”).With teacher assistance, stretch out sounds in words with teacher (e.g., “Let’s stretch the sounds to help us write the word ‘can’.”).
Learning Standard 4.D
Demonstrate emergent phonics and word-analysis skills.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Identify own first name (e.g., point to own name on cubby and say, “That says Jason!” or find name card at sign-in time).Recognize environmental print and one or two classmates’ names (e.g., road signs from a restaurant or a local store).Identify labels (e.g., the words posted to identify various centers, objects, and materials) and more than two classmates’ names in the classroom.
With teacher assistance, respond to prompts about the sound associated with a specific letter, especially the first letter of his/her name (e.g., “Your name starts with the letter ‘m’. Can you remember the sound that this letter makes?”).With teacher assistance, identify the sound of the beginning letter of a word (e.g., “What letter makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the word ‘snake’?”).With teacher assistance, identify examples of alliteration (e.g., saying that the words “big blue bouncing ball” all begin with the /b/ sound).
With teacher assistance, identify individual sounds by saying names of classmates that begin with the sound that is made by a specific letter.With teacher assistance, identify individual sounds through activities such as naming words that begin with the sound that is made by a specific letter.With teacher assistance, spell words phonetically, using known letter sounds (e.g., “s” for snake, “kt” for cat).
Goal 5
Demonstrate increasing awareness of and competence in emergent writing skills and abilities.

Learning Standard 5.A
Demonstrate growing interest and abilities in writing.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Choose one type of writing material to engage in making marks or scribbles identified as a name.Choose one or two types of writing materials (e.g., markers, pencils) to engage in making letterlike forms identified as a name.Use a variety of writing materials (e.g., markers, pencils, crayons, chalk) to attempt to write own name and/or the names of friends and family members.
Make marks or scribbles and identify as writing in play activities, such as developing a grocery list during dramatic play or a sign for a block construction.Make letterlike forms and identify as writing in play activities, such as developing a grocery list during dramatic play or a sign for a block construction.Make letters or words in play activities, such as developing a grocery list during dramatic play or a sign for a block construction.
With teacher assistance, make marks or scribbles to represent own name on sign-up charts, drawings, and other pieces of work.With teacher assistance, make letterlike forms to represent own name on sign-up charts, drawings, and other pieces of work.With teacher assistance, write increasingly recognizable letters of own name on sign-up charts, drawings, and other pieces of work.
If available, show interest in letters on an electronic keyboard (e.g., computer, iPad).If available, show interest in letters in own name on an electronic keyboard (e.g., computer, iPad).If available, and with teacher assistance, locate and type letters in own name on an electronic keyboard (e.g., computer, iPad).
Learning Standard 5.B
Use writing to represent ideas and information.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Contribute personal opinions to be included in group-dictated pieces of writing (e.g., “My favorite food is ____,” “I like ____ because ____.”).Contribute factual information to be included in group-dictated pieces of writing (e.g., brainstorm characteristics of a familiar type of animal, food, or vehicle; recall and share true information about a familiar topic).Contribute to group-dictated stories about a shared experience (e.g., tell about something that happened on a field trip; describe how the dramatic play area was changed into a pet store and new ways the child was able to use that area of the room).
With teacher assistance, draw a picture about a personal event that took place and dictate to the teacher to share information and feelings about it.With teacher assistance, draw a picture about a personal event that took place and use scribbles and/or letterlike forms to share information and feelings about it.With teacher assistance, draw a picture about a personal event that took place and use scribbles, letterlike forms, letters, and/or words to share information and feelings about it.
With teacher assistance, participate in making decisions for a group- dictated piece of writing created electronically (e.g., on a computer, iPad, or Smart Board).With teacher assistance, participate in making decisions for a group- dictated piece of writing in which photographs will be taken to use for illustrations.With support from the teacher, use electronic means (e.g., a computer, iPad, or Smart Board) to create a piece of writing.
Learning Standard 5.C
Use writing to research and share knowledge.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Join in an activity to learn about a topic of interest to the group.Join in multiple activities to learn about a topic of interest to the group.Join in multiple activities to learn about a topic of interest to the group and contribute documentation to the study (whether it be drawings, photos, or writing).
With teacher assistance, share through dictation factual information gained from hands-on experiences or written sources.With teacher assistance, share through drawing factual information gained from hands-on experiences or written sources.With teacher assistance, share through writing (whether scribbles, letterlike shapes, letters, or words) factual information gained from hands-on experiences or written sources.
Goal 6
Demonstrate and apply a knowledge and sense of numbers, including numeration and operations.

Learning Standard 6.A
Demonstrate beginning understanding of numbers, number names, and numerals.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Recognize how many there are in a set of 1 or 2 without counting them (e.g., one car or two blue crayons). Recognize how many there are in a set of 3 without counting them (e.g., three yellow beads). Recognize how many there are in sets of 4 and 5 when presented in a nonlinear, organized fashion (like a die face).
Point to or move objects around as though to organize without necessarily counting out loud. Point to or move objects when counting out loud without effectively tracking items counted (may skip items or count items more than once). Point to or move each object to make sure sure each is counted once and only once when counting in sets up to 5.
Demonstrate an understanding of zero by making a comment such as “Now I don’t have any more” when finished with a snack of four crackers. Demonstrate understanding of none by looking into an empty container and commenting that there is “nothing in there.” Respond to a question about quantity, such as “How many red bears are left?” when none are left by saying: “None.”
Confuse numerals and letters, saying number names occasionally when pointing to letters. Say number names when pointing to numerals (but not letters), even if they don’t match. Correctly identify the numerals 1, 2, and 3.
Say some counting words when “counting.” Recite counting words from 1-10, with 2-4 errors (e.g., skip numbers, mix up order) but also some number names in words in consecutive order (e.g., “one, two, five, four, six, seven, nine, ten”). Recite counting words in order from 1-10 (with an occasional error).
Fill in the next number when the teacher says, “one, two…” Fill in the next number when the teacher says, “one, two, three…” Fill in the next number when the teacher says, “three, four, five…” (not starting at “one”).
Learning Standard 6.B
Add and subtract to create new numbers and begin to construct sets.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Combine items to create a new number (e.g., combine two blocks with a friend’s two blocks and say, “Now we have four.”) Separate items from a set (e.g., with a set of three cups, takes one away and says, “Now we have two.”).Recognize that combining sets always results in “more” and separating sets always results in “less.”
Count out two objects correctly (e.g., count two crackers on plate at snack time).Count out three and four objects correctly (e.g., count four blocks in a block tower).Count out five objects correctly (e.g., count five children in a small group).
Solve simple math problems (e.g., know that if one child is added to the group that makes one more).Solve simple math problems (e.g., know that if one chair is taken away from the table that makes less).Solve simple math problems (e.g., know that if one orange is taken away from a group of five, there are four oranges left).
Divide a set of two to four objects between self and a friend evenly.Divide a set of six to nine objects between self and a friend evenly.Divide a set of 10 crackers between self and a friend evenly.
Learning Standard 6.C
Begin to make reasonable estimates of numbers.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Make reasonable estimates of small quantities of objects (e.g., guess “four” when asked how many peach slices are in the bowl).Tell whether a set is more or less than 5.Presented with a set of 7 or 8, estimate a number in the range of 5 to 12.
Learning Standard 6.D
Compare quantities using appropriate vocabulary terms.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Match sets of things that go together, item to item (e.g., match one napkin to each of the place settings at the table).Through words or gestures, identify which set has more.Through words or gestures, identify whether sets have more, less, or an equal amount.
Use the terms “more” or “same as” (e.g., acknowledge that one child has more pegs and another has the same number).Use the terms “less”, “not as many”, or “fewer” (e.g., acknowledge that one child has less play dough than others do).Use a variety of appropriate vocabulary to make comparisons of quantity (e.g., “more”, “less”, “greater than”, “fewer”, “equal to”, or “same as”).
Goal 7
Explore measurement of objects and quantities.

Learning Standard 7.A
Measure objects and quantities using direct comparison methods and nonstandard units.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Compare magnitudes of one object to another (e.g., line up two strings of beads to determine which is longer; stand next to peer to see who is taller).Order multiple objects to compare magnitudes (i.e., arrange blocks from tallest to shortest).Order multiple objects to compare magnitudes and describe comparisons (i.e., arrange blocks from tallest to shortest and describe).
Use nonstandard means to measure items (e.g., using a piece of string or a long block as a measurement tool).Use nonstandard units to measure items (e.g., use hands or small blocks to measure the length of a table).Use nonstandard units to measure items and identify the quantity of units (e.g., may not be correct but attempt to count the number of hands or small blocks in the length of the table).
Use appropriate vocabulary when making measurements, such as “small”, “big”.Use appropriate vocabulary when making measurements, such as “small”, “big”, “short”, “tall”.Use a wider appropriate vocabulary when making measurements, such as “small”, “big”, “short”, “tall”, “empty”, “full”, “heavy”, and “light”.
Ask about the sequence of the daily schedule (e.g., “When will we have snack?” “When are my Mom and Dad coming?”).Know the sequence of the daily schedule and guess the progression of the schedule throughout the day but not with accuracy (e.g., guess incorrectly that snack is after circle time yet knows that Mom or Dad will come after outside time).Know the sequence of the daily schedule and begin to accurately gauge time by progression of the schedule throughout the day (e.g., know that naptime comes after lunch or that outside time comes after snack).
Learning Standard 7.B
Begin to make estimates of measurements.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Make predictions and estimations during play without much accuracy (e.g., estimate how many scoops of sand it will take to fill a small bucket at the sand table — “I think 100!”).Make more accurate predictions and estimations during play without checking by counting (e.g., estimate how many pebbles will fill the balance scale cup, “I think 10” but without counting to check).Make more accurate predictions and estimations during play and check them by counting (e.g., “I think it will take five scoops of sand to fill this cup – 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 – oh, I was almost right!”).
Estimate to solve a task without much accuracy (e.g., when setting table for snack, estimate how many napkins are needed. “I think 50.”).Estimate to solve a task with more accuracy but without checking by counting (e.g., during block play, estimate how many blocks are needed to make the road being constructed reach the wall, “I think six” – but without counting to check).Estimate to solve a task with more accuracy and check by counting (e.g., during block play, estimate how many blocks are needed to make the road being constructed reach the wall, then count to see how many it took).
Learning Standard 7.C
Explore tools used for measurement.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Incorporate teacher-introduced standard measuring tools into play without attention to quantity.With teacher assistance, use standard measuring tools without expressing interest in quantity (e.g., teacher suggests they see how many rulers high the shelf is; child helps with measuring).Ask teacher to help with using standard measuring tools and figuring out quantities (e.g., use a measuring tape and ask how long the two blocks are).
Learn the vocabulary words “thermometer” and “clock”.With teacher assistance, explore measuring hot and cold with thermometers.With teacher assistance, learn that clocks measure time.
With teacher assistance, use a balance scale to compare weights of objects in the classroom.With teacher assistance, use a scale that provides numerical weight to compare weights of objects in the classroom.With teacher assistance, use a variety of similar tools for measurement of weight (e.g., use both balance scales and scales that provide a numerical weight to explore objects in the classroom).
Goal 8
Identify and describe common attributes, patterns, and relationships in objects.

Learning Standard 8.A
Explore objects and patterns.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Match similar objects when an attribute is named (e.g., “Which rocks are smooth like this one?” “Can you find another ball that’s this big?”).Compare and describe various objects, identifying one of their attributes (e.g., describe different rocks by referring to their size, shape, or weight).Compare and describe various objects, identifying at least two of their attributes (e.g., describe different rocks by referring to their size and shape or texture and weight).
Match similar objects (e.g., putting all the toy cars together or lining up plates on a table).Sort objects by a single attribute (e.g., ordering fire trucks from shortest to longest or ordering rocks from smooth to rough).Sort objects according to two different characteristics and describe a sorting strategy (e.g., sort crayons by color and size, “Here are the big red ones and there are the little blue ones”, or sort blocks by shape and color, “These are all yellow triangles and these are the green rectangles”).
Attempt to create a simple A-B repeating pattern using early childhood materials but without maintaining the repeating pattern (e.g., makes colored marks on the white board beginning with black, green, black, then adds red, green, black, blue, black).Successfully create a simple A-B repeating pattern using classroom objects (e.g., build a tower of alternating blue and red cubes).Create a simple A-B-C or A-B-B repeating pattern using classroom objects (e.g., lines up people figures with small, medium, large as the repeating pattern; strings beads on a necklace with one yellow, two orange in a repeating pattern).
Replicate a simple pattern in music following the beat by clapping or tapping foot lightly.Replicate patterns in music by playing finger games such as “Open, Shut Them.”Replicate patterns in music by singing repetitive songs such as “B-I-N-G-O.”
Learning Standard 8.B
Describe and document patterns using symbols.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With adult assistance, describe a pattern in words (e.g., “tall, short, tall, short, tall, short” or “red, blue, yellow, red, blue, yellow, red, blue, yellow”). When presented with a visual “red-blue, red-blue, red-blue” repeating pattern and told “do a clap for red and a tap for blue,” produce clap-tap, clap-tap, clap-tap with adult assistance. When presented with a visual “circle-square, circle-square, circle-square” repeating pattern and told “do a green bear for circles and a yellow bear for squares,” produce green bear-yellow bear, green bear-yellow bear, green bear-yellow bear pattern with adult assistance.
Goal 9
Explore concepts of geometry and spatial relations.

Learning Standard 9.A
Recognize, name, and match common shapes.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Identify the shape of various twodimensional items in the early childhood environment (e.g., state that the clock is shaped like a circle or that the table top is a rectangle). Identify the shape of various twodimensional items in the classroom and describe their attributes (e.g., state that a square block has four sides and a triangle block has three sides). Identify the shape of various twoand three-dimensional items in the early childhood environment and describe their attributes (e.g., “I used all these ‘rolling blocks’ (cylinders) to hold up my bridge.”).
Match triangles to triangles, squares to squares, circles to circles, and rectangles to rectangles. Match triangles to triangles, squares to squares, circles to circles, and rectangles to rectangles even when size (or proportion) differs among examples. Match cubes, spheres, and pyramids, even when size differs among examples.
Match the face (flat side) of one common three-dimensional shape to another (e.g., match the face of one cube to another or one cylinder to another). Describe the face (flat side) of one common three-dimensional shape (cube or cylinder) using two-dimensional shape names (square or circle). Describe the faces (flat sides) of more than one common threedimensional shape, such as cubes and cylinders, using twodimensional shape names, such as squares and circles.
Use one common two-dimensional shape to create simple representations of things in the real world (e.g., line up several rectangle blocks to make a “road”). Use more than one common two-dimensional shape to create representations of things in the real world (e.g., place small square blocks on the “road” to be the “cars”). Use common two-dimensional shapes to create more complex representations of things in the real world (e.g., place triangles around a circle to make a “flower”).
Rotate and flip shapes, such as blocks and puzzle pieces, to make them “fit.” Rotate and flip a shape to create something different (e.g., place the rectangle on its short or long side). Discuss with teacher how rotating and flipping a shape will create something different (e.g., Teacher: “What do you think will happen if you turn the triangle upside down? Let’s try it.” Child: “It stands up by itself!”).
Learning Standard 9.B
Demonstrate an understanding of location and ordinal position, using appropriate vocabulary.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Respond appropriately to request to place an object somewhere in space in relation to other objects (e.g., put doll in front of pillow; place shoes under table).Respond to questions about location of an object (e.g., respond correctly to questions such as “Which colored block is on top?”).Respond to questions about ordinal position of an object (e.g., respond correctly to questions such as “Who is first in line?” or “Which car came in third?”).
Attempt to use vocabulary for location during play activities, not always correctly (e.g., when asked, say the doll is under the pillow when she is in front).Use appropriate vocabulary for location during play activities (e.g., in conversations, use terms such as “near” and “far”, “over”and “under”).Use appropriate vocabulary for ordinal position during play activities (e.g., in conversations, use terms such as “first” and “last”, “second” and “third”).
Goal 10
Begin to make predictions and collect data information.

Learning Standard 10.A
Generate questions and processes for answering them.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
With teacher assistance, identify a “yes” or “no” question to ask a peer and report verbally to teacher.With teacher assistance, identify a “yes” or “no” question to ask multiple peers, recording on a “yes” or “no” chart or clipboard.With teacher assistance, formulate questions of personal interest (make a list of things to find out about, such as favorite cookies or how children get to school each day) and conduct surveys on charts or clipboards.
Notice a change in the environment and comment (e.g., “We need more paintbrushes at the easel.”).Discuss one aspect of their environment and then collect relevant information with teacher assistance as needed (e.g., discuss whether trees have buds yet and go outside to check).Discuss more than one aspect of their environment and then collect relevant information with teacher assistance as needed (e.g., discuss what kinds of insects live on the school playground and then go outside to investigate).
Learning Standard 10.B
Organize and describe data and information.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Organize materials with teacher support to prepare for graphing (e.g., sort leaves by color, sort fruit by type). Participate in creating a data display using concrete objects or pictures with teacher support (e.g., organize children’s favorite fruit in rows to demonstrate whether more children prefer apples or oranges). Compare numerical information derived from graphs to find answers to questions with teacher support as needed (e.g., use information depicted on a chart or graph to describe which classroom games are most popular).
With teacher support, begin to predict the outcome of an activity (e.g., predict there are more boys than girls at the snack table). With teacher support, provide a reasonable prediction or guess for the outcome of an activity (e.g., predict that the class collected more yellow than red leaves on the nature walk before sorting and counting them). With teacher support, predict with more accuracy the outcome of a counting or comparison activity (e.g., predict how many more chairs, when three are already there, are needed for the small group table so that six children can all have a seat).
Learning Standard 10.C
Determine, describe, and apply the probabilities of events.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING Attempt to use vocabulary to describe likelihood, but not always with accuracy (e.g., “My birthday is always on Saturday.”).Use vocabulary terms “always” and “never” in reasonable ways to describe the likelihood of an event (e.g., “Spring always comes after winter” or “We will never have an elephant as a class pet”).Use vocabulary terms “possible” and “impossible” to describe the likelihood of an event (e.g., “It’s impossible to walk on the ceiling” or “It’s possible to sit on the chair”).
Goal 11
Demonstrate curiosity about the world and begin to use the practices of science and engineering to answer questions and solve problems.

Learning Standard 11.A
Develop beginning skills in the use of science and engineering practices, such as observing, asking questions, solving problems, and drawing conclusions.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Show curiosity and interest in the world around them and ask why questions (e.g., “Why is the sidewalk shiny from the rain?” “How come it smells so good in here?” when muffins are baking). Participate in a discussion about why things happen (e.g., describe why some objects roll and others do not). Pose what, why, and how questions about the world around them (e.g., ask why some objects move when placed near a magnet, what made the hole in the acorn, or where do ants live).
Represent through actions or materials the physical characteristics of a natural object (e.g., crawl like a worm, mix colors of paint to show the colors of leaves changing on a tree, make an acorn out of clay). Draw the physical characteristics of something observed (e.g., record the growth of a sprouting seed through drawings). Draw the physical characteristics of something observed and describe the characteristics with words (e.g., record the growth of a sprouting seed through drawings and describe the changes observed).
Use the senses to investigate and make comparisons (e.g., compare textures of objects using the sense of touch). Investigate simple cause and effect or other scientific principles such as magnetism and gravity through play activities (e.g., observe that a toy car rolls slower when a ramp is lowered or that block towers consistently fall downward). With teacher assistance, conduct an investigation, predicting and testing results (e.g., mixing colors into cup of water, predicting changes with each new color added, then testing results).
Use materials to design solutions to problems (e.g., after trial and error, realize which blocks work best to create a stable bridge for toy cars to roll across). Use simple charts to collect data (e.g., test a collection of objects to see which bounce and record the results). Use simple graphs to collect data (e.g., organize all of the autumn leaves collected outdoors into a color graph).
Goal 12
Explore concepts and information about the physical, earth, and life sciences.

Learning Standard 12.A
Understand that living things grow and change.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Identify and describe the different structures of familiar mammals (e.g., explain that dogs and cats have eyes and ears). Identify and describe the different structures of familiar plants and a greater range of animals (e.g., explain that plants have leaves, stems, and roots and that fish have fins and gills). Identify things as living or nonliving based on characteristics such as breathing, movement, and growth.
Observe similarities and differences when viewing pictures of self, beginning in infancy. Observe living things to see how they change over time (e.g., compare a variety of plants to observe how quickly they grow and change over time). Understand that living things grow and change. Can use drawings or other forms of representation to describe changes familiar to them (e.g., record changes in a nearby tree through the seasons).
Learning Standard 12.B
Understand that living things rely on the environment and/or others to live and grow.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Compare human basic needs to those of other living things. Compare what different animals need to live and grow. Observe, describe, and compare the habitats of various plants and animals.
Show awareness of the need to care for living things (e.g., water plants, feed pets, put food out for birds). Take responsibility for caring for living things (e.g., water plants, feed pets, put food out for birds). Describe and compare how changes in the seasons and weather affect plants and animals.
Learning Standard 12.C
Explore the physical properties of objects.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Match objects according to physical properties, such as color, texture, or shape. Sort objects according to physical properties, such as color, texture, or shape. Explore and describe the properties of different objects using the senses of touch, smell, taste, sight, and hearing.
Explore and discuss simple chemical reactions with teacher assistance (e.g., mix substances such as baking soda and water and describe what happens). Explore changes in matter with teacher assistance (e.g., make gelatin to show that matter changes from a liquid to a solid or melt ice to show how solids change to a liquid). Recognize that some changes in matter are reversible and some are not (e.g., water can be changed to ice and become water again; flour used to make play dough cannot be returned to its original state).
Learning Standard 12.D
Explore concepts of force and motion.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Describe and compare the effects of common forces, such as pushing and pulling. Explore the effects of simple forces in nature, such as wind, gravity, and magnetism. Describe the effects of simple forces in nature, such as wind, gravity, and magnetism.
Explore and describe the motion of toys and objects (e.g., compare how cars roll on ramps when placed at different angles). Recognize and describe the effect of actions on objects (e.g., explain what happens if one blows on a pinwheel or kicks a ball). Explore the impact of their own use of force and motion on objects (e.g., can control the distance a ball travels by using a gentle or hard kick).
Learning Standard 12.E
Explore concepts and information related to the Earth, including ways to take care of our planet.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Investigate and identify physical properties and characteristics of water as a solid and liquid. Explore and compare the size, shape, weight, and texture of minerals and rocks (e.g., sort rocks by rough/smooth or small/large). Investigate and discuss similarities and differences in samples of soil, such as a clay, sand, potting soil, and dirt from the playground (e.g., sift or add water to sand and compare).
Show some awareness of reusing and recycling materials. Participate in reusing and recycling materials. Identify ways to protect the environment (e.g., participate in discussions about conservation strategies such as turning off lights, turning off water faucets, and not littering).
Learning Standard 12.F
Explore changes related to the weather and seasons.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Describe changes in weather. Participate in discussions about the differences in the seasons. Discuss which seasons are more appropriate for certain activities (e.g., explain that leaves are raked in the fall, that sledding takes place in winter).
Describe and create representations of clouds. Explore the effects of the sun on objects (e.g., feel the difference in temperature in objects placed in sunlight and shade). Participate in activities that require one to understand differences between the seasons (e.g., match appropriate clothes to the right season).
Goal 13
Understand important connections and understandings in science and engineering.

Learning Standard 13.A
Understand rules to follow when investigating and exploring.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Participate in discussion about safety when using the senses to explore things (e.g., talk with peers about not building blocks over their shoulders because they could fall and hit their heads). Participate in discussions about safety before acting when using the senses to explore things (e.g., understand the need be cautious when touching things that may be hot, such as light bulbs, and not to lick or taste unknown substances). Ask teacher about safety before acting when using the senses to explore things (e.g., “Is it okay if I touch this, teacher?” “I need safety goggles for the workbench, huh, teacher?”).
Learning Standard 13.B
Use tools and technology to assist with science and engineering investigations.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Try out one or two tools to explore the world (e.g., look at classroom through a prism, study natural items under a magnifying glass). Use a variety of tools, such as magnifiers, balance scales, and thermometers, to explore the world and learn how things work. Use standard and nonstandard tools and technology in pretend play (e.g., ruler, scale, or yarn to measure, rocks to compare weight, cardboard tube to amplify a voice).
Observe teacher using technology to aid in investigation, exploration, and scientific inquiry. Make suggestion to use technology to aid in investigation, exploration, and scientific inquiry. Use technology, such as a computer or camera, to aid in investigation, exploration, and scientific inquiry.
Goal 14
Understand some concepts related to citizenship.

Learning Standard 14.A
Understand what it means to be a member of a group and community.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Engage in conversation with teacher about fairness and sharing when a conflict needs to be resolved. Participate in discussions about fairness and sharing in general conversations. Demonstrate an understanding of fairness and sharing (e.g., accepts the need to wait for a turn with a toy).
Participate in activities that benefit the group as a whole, such as cleaning up after play or watering an early childhood environment plant. Participate in making group rules and/or rules for routines and transitions. Display awareness of role as a member of a group and that rules are made to benefit the members of a group (e.g., explain that hitting isn’t allowed because someone might get hurt).
Learning Standard 14.B
Understand the structures and functions of the political systems of Illinois, the United States, and other nations.

Learning Standard 14.C
Understand ways groups make choices and decisions.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Demonstrate preferences and choices when the group votes to make simple decisions. Participate in discussions about how voting works (e.g., that the majority vote wins). Demonstrate an understanding of the outcome of a vote (e.g., recognize and accept that the majority vote wins).
Learning Standard 14.D
Understand the role that individuals can play in a group or community.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Assume simple leadership roles (e.g., take on role of line leader). Take responsibility in simple leadership roles (e.g., as snack helper, ask about and perform the necessary tasks). Assume the role of teacher’s helper (e.g., table helper; person who waters the plant; pass out plates, cups, and spoons for snack).
Identify roles that children play in the group (e.g., line leader, person who selects the afternoon story). Act out various roles that a person might play within a group (e.g., pretend to be a teacher, student, parent, or child during dramatic play). Identify and describe roles that children play in the group (e.g., line leader, person who selects the afternoon story).
Learning Standard 14.E
Understand United States foreign policy as it relates to other nations and international issues.

Learning Standard 14.F
Understand the development of United States’ political ideas and traditions.

Goal 15
Explore economic systems and human interdependence.

Learning Standard 15.A
Explore roles in the economic system and workforce.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Identify commonly known community workers and the services they provide (e.g., describe the work of firefighters, nurses, mail carriers, doctors, and police officers). Act out roles of commonly known community workers in dramatic play (e.g., pretend to be a cashier in a grocery store). Identify tools and equipment that correspond to various roles and jobs of commonly known community workers.
Participate in a discussion about jobs their family members may have. Participate in a discussion that relates work to earning money. Participate in a discussion that relates work to services provided (e.g., to teach, to take care of people, to take care of cars, to manage a business).
Learning Standard 15.B
Explore issues of limited resources in the early childhood environment and world.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Participate in a conversation about taking turns with materials when there is not enough for everyone to have their own. Recognize equal distribution when sharing a snack, materials, or toys among a group. Contribute to a community service activity of the class (e.g., collecting food for the needy, recycling early childhood materials).
Learning Standard 15.C
Understand that scarcity necessitates choices by producers

Learning Standard 15.D
Explore concepts about trade as an exchange of goods or services.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Engage in trading with peers (e.g., trade two pretzels for two crackers at snack or two small cars for one big truck during play). Understand that money is needed to obtain goods and services (e.g., while playing store, ask other children to pay for goods; explain that you must pay for things that you get at the store). Demonstrate understanding that payment or money comes in different forms, such as coins, money, credit cards, and bartering goods (e.g., while playing store, offer to pay for goods with credit card, check, or cash).
Learning Standard 15.E
Understand the impact of government policies and decisions on production and consumption in the economy

Goal 16
Develop an awareness of the self and his or her uniqueness and individuality.

Learning Standard 16.A
Explore his or her self and personal history.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Answer questions such as “How did you get to school today?” or “In what centers did you play today?” Draw or write about something that happened at school. Use phrases that differentiate between events that happened in the past and are happening in the present (e.g., describe events that took place yesterday or are happening today).
Discuss things that s/he likes and dislikes. Demonstrate awareness of self at a younger age (e.g., bring in picture of self as an infant). Participate in discussions about his or her past (e.g., explain that “When I was little, I could not ride a tricycle, but now I can”).
Learning Standard 16.B
Understand the development of significant political events.

Learning Standard 16.C
Understand the development of economic systems.

Learning Standard 16.D
Understand Illinois, United States, and world social history.

Learning Standard 16.E
Understand Illinois, United States, and world environmental history.

Goal 17
Explore geography, the child’s environment, and where people live, work, and play.

Learning Standard 17.A
Explore environments and where people live.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Follow directions to find objects or materials in the early childhood environment (e.g., can find crayons if told that they are next to the glue). Engage in basic mapping activities (e.g., place pictures of common household items in a map showing the correct room, such as placing the toaster in the kitchen and the bed in the bedroom). Discuss a diagram of the early childhood environment showing where various features of the room are located.
Participate in a discussion about maps and diagrams. Comment on a diagram showing how mats are arranged at naptime. Describe basic topographical features, such as hills, rivers, and roads.
Learning Standard 17.B
Analyze and explain characteristics and interactions of the Earth’s physical systems.

Learning Standard 17.C
Understand relationships between geographic factors and society.

Learning Standard 17.D
Understand the historical significance of geography.

Goal 18
Explore people and families

Learning Standard 18.A
Explore people, their similarities, and their differences.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Distinguish boys from girls. Notice differences in physical characteristics between self and others. Describe similarities and differences in physical characteristics between self and others (e.g., comment on characteristics such as hair length, skin color, age, and height).
Learning Standard 18.B
Develop an awareness of self within the context of family.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Compare photos of families and identify members of own family. Compare photos of families and discuss the variety of family structures. Role-play a variety of family members in dramatic play.
Learning Standard 18.C
Understand how social systems form and develop over time.

Goal 19
Acquire movement skills and understand concepts needed to explore the environment, support learning, and engage in health‐enhancing physical activity.

Learning Standard 19.A
Demonstrate physical competency and control of large and small muscles.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Exhibit body control while running (e.g., run in and out of cones in a figure eight or change directions while moving and step down from higher surface instead of jumping). Move in general space throughout the play area exhibiting adequate body control and safety. Demonstrate the skills of climbing (ladders, playground equipment), hopping (on one foot), and jumping (can jump over objects 4-6 inches high and land on both feet).
Exhibit balance while using gross-motor equipment. Exhibit balance, control, and coordination during movement activities (e.g., climb stairs using alternating feet; run, jump, and walk in a straight line; stand and hop on one foot). Demonstrate strength and balance by performing body support movements (e.g., bear crawl and crab walk).
Put on clothing items, such as shirts, jackets, pants, and shoes. Demonstrate ability to use writing and drawing tools (e.g., hold pencils, crayons, and markers in a functional grasp; use paintbrushes to make strokes at an easel). Demonstrate eye-hand coordination and fine-motor control through various activities (e.g., string beads, manipulate pegs, build with small blocks, pour using different tools, assemble puzzles, button/zip, snap, use scissors to cut paper).
Learning Standard 19.B
Demonstrate awareness and coordination of body movements.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Demonstrate awareness of spatial boundaries and the ability to maneuver within the area. Move effectively in different pathways (e.g., zigzag, curved), able to stop quickly and change directions. Coordinate large movements to use equipment (e.g., peddle a tricycle, pull a wagon).
Demonstrate the ability to throw (overhand and underhand). Throw, catch, or kick a lightweight ball. Demonstrate the ability to kick or strike (using an implement) in a specific direction with some control and accuracy.
Participate in activities involving a series of large motor movements (e.g., dance, play “Follow the Leader,” play “Simon Says”). Demonstrate understanding of spatial relationships, such as under, over, behind, and next to, by using the body and an object. Demonstrate ability to coordinate fine- and gross-motor movement (e.g., build structures, such as some houses and roads, with hollow and unit blocks).
Learning Standard 19.C
Demonstrate knowledge of rules and safety during activity.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Demonstrate safe, controlled movement during activities, with occasional adult reminders. Adhere to basic safety rules during gross- and fine-motor activities, with occasional adult reminders. Apply body control during gross-motor activities to prevent accident or injury to self or others.
Participate in discussions about the importance of helmets for safety on tricycles, scooters, and wagons. Understand the concept of safety relative to helmets while riding tricycles, skating on a scooter, or riding in a wagon. Ask for a helmet before riding tricycles, skating on a scooter, or riding in a wagon.
Goal 20
Develop habits for lifelong fitness.

Learning Standard 20.A
Achieve and maintain a health‐enhancing level of physical fitness.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Participate in activities that increase heart rate, flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, and cardiovascular endurance, such as running and jumping. Participate in activities that require stretching muscles, such as climbing, reaching, and pulling. Engage in repetitive behavior to practice and promote skill and ability, recognizing that physical activity keeps the body healthy.
Learning Standard 20.B
Assess individual fitness levels.

Learning Standard 20.C
Set goals based on fitness data and develop, implement, and monitor an individual fitness improvement plan.

Goal 21
Develop team‐building skills by working with others through physical activity.

Learning Standard 21.A
Demonstrate individual responsibility during group physical activities.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Ask questions such as “Is it my turn now?” during a game. Show basic awareness of others and participate in an activity while remaining in their personal space. Follow rules for simple games.
Participate in discussion of safety during physical activity. Participate safely in the day’s physical activity, with assistance from adults. Participate safely in the day’s physical activity, with few reminders from adults.
Learning Standard 21.B
Demonstrate cooperative skills during structured group physical activity.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Share equipment with others during a group physical activity. Take turns during group physical activities. Cooperate with others during a physical activity to complete a task.
Encourage peers to be successful. Respect others’ abilities. Respect others’ abilities and cooperate to help the activity be fun and enjoyable for all.
Goal 22
Understand principles of health promotion and the prevention and treatment of illness and injury.

Learning Standard 22.A
Explain the basic principles of health promotion, illness prevention, treatment, and safety.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Participate in discussions about healthy living (e.g., eating healthy foods, hand washing, sneezing and coughing into sleeve). Distinguish food on a continuum from more healthy to less healthy. Recognize the importance of doctor and dentist visits for staying healthy.
Participate in hand washing throughout the day, with adult reminders. Practice personal hygiene, such as using a tissue to wipe nose and throwing used tissues in a wastebasket or covering the mouth when sneezing and coughing, with adult reminders. Complete personal care tasks, such as toileting and washing hands, with only occasional reminders.
Identify ways to reduce injuries on the playground, such as standing far enough from swings to avoid injury and using play equipment in safe ways. Discuss safety rules such as pedestrian safety (e.g., look both ways before crossing the street and walking on the sidewalk). Demonstrate basic safety knowledge (e.g., looking both ways before crossing the street, wearing a seatbelt, practicing bus safety, using a helmet).
Learning Standard 22.B
Describe and explain the factors that influence health among individuals, groups, and communities.

Learning Standard 22.C
Explain how the environment can affect health.

Goal 23
Understand human body systems and factors that influence growth and development.

Learning Standard 23.A
Describe and explain the structure and functions of the human body systems and how they interrelate.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Point to external body parts, such as arms, legs, knees, ears, and toes. Identify external body parts, such as arms, legs, knees, ears, and toes, by naming them. Identify or demonstrate ways to use body parts (e.g., ears to hear, eyes to see, legs to walk and run).
Learning Standard 23.B
Identify ways to keep the body healthy.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Distinguish between being healthy and not healthy. Participate in discussions of good health habits, such as getting enough sleep, eating healthy foods, and getting enough exercise every day. Identify good health habits, such as getting enough sleep, eating healthy foods, and getting enough exercise every day.
Participate in discussions about the importance of eating breakfast. Identify healthy foods and snacks. Explain that bodies need healthy food to grow, feel well, and have energy to play.
Learning Standard 23.C
Describe factors that affect growth and development.

Goal 24
Promote and enhance health and well‐being through the use of effective communication and decision‐making skills.

Learning Standard 24.A
Demonstrate procedures for communicating in positive ways, resolving differences, and preventing conflict.

Learning Standard 24.B
Apply decision-making skills related to the protection and promotion of individual health.

Learning Standard 24.C
Demonstrate skills essential to enhancing health and avoiding dangerous situations.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Understand some practices can be unsafe (e.g., horsing around on the playground equipment). Communicate to adults if there is an unsafe condition in the play area, such as “Bobby is tripping other children.” or “The playground equipment is wet”. Demonstrate understanding of how to respond in unsafe situations, such as what to do if playing near the street, not wearing a helmet, or someone gets hurt (e.g., tell an adult, call 911).
Participate in a discussion about familiar adults. Participate in a discussion about who is and who is not a stranger. Know when you feel “uncomfortable” with an adult to express that to another adult.
Goal 25
Gain exposure to and explore the arts.

Learning Standard 25.A
Investigate, begin to appreciate, and participate in the arts.

Example Performance Descriptors

Movement and Dance
EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Participate in movement games and activities (e.g., imitate animal movements in a group activity, dance with classmates, play “Simon Says”, freeze when music stops). Combine music and movement (e.g., move to the beat of a drum). Change movement in response to tempo (e.g., moving more slowly when music slows down and more quickly when music speeds up).
Begin to purposely use simple movement patterns as they move to music (e.g., intentionally using dance movements they have learned or made up, dancing to a familiar tune). Portray emotions through movement (e.g., hanging head and drooping shoulders to portray feeling sad; swinging arms, smiling, and taking big steps to portray feeling happy). Move in coordination with a partner (e.g., mirroring the movements of a partner, holding hands and moving to rhythmic dance music, swinging partner by linking elbows).
Perform imaginative and unstructured movement activities, such as galloping, twirling in response to music, or dancing with scarves. Begin to coordinate rhythm and timing in movement activities (e.g., swinging on swings or sharing a teeter-totter). Move to the beat of music.
Drama
EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Participate in or dramatize familiar songs (e.g., imitate teacher in moving like various animals during a song about farm animals). Act out roles in the dramatic play area (e.g., pretend to be a doctor, mother, cashier, or police officer). Use a pretend play to represent known or anticipated situations (e.g., reenact a visit to the dentist).
Begin to dramatize character by changing speech, facial expression, gestures, and body movement (e.g., “washing animals” like Mrs. Wishy Washy with a teacher during a read-aloud). Begin to coordinate roles in dramatic play with others who take on roles (e.g., enters dramatic play about the grocery store and agrees with other children regarding who will play which role). Proactively organize dramatic play with others (e.g., assigning roles, props, and laying out rules for the play).
View the dramatic performances of the teacher retelling a story or acting out a puppet play. View the dramatic performances of other children attentively (e.g., watches other children reenact a familiar story). Appreciate the dramatic performances of others (e.g., may clap, laugh at, or verbally praise the comedic performance of others).
Music
EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Listen to music representing a variety of rhythms, styles, and cultures. Play various musical instruments to explore the type of sound each makes. Identify differences in styles of music or sounds of musical instruments (e.g., “That music is slower.” “The flute sounds high.”)
Show appreciation for music through body language and facial expressions (e.g., clap when a favorite song is played). Request favorite songs to sing, dance with, or listen to. Request favorite songs to sing, dance with, or listen to and describe favorite features of the song.
Visual Arts
EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Explore various ways to use visual arts such as painting materials (e.g., combine paint colors, paint with large brushes as well as with cotton swabs). Manipulate play dough or clay in different ways, such as rolling, pinching, or squeezing. Create two- and three-dimensional works of art while experimenting with color, line, shape, form, texture, and space (e.g., use paint, markers, crayon, clay, pipe cleaners, found art materials).
Use a variety of visual art materials independently (e.g., get out paper, glue, and scissors to create a collage; get clay, water bowl, and clay tools from shelves and bring to table to work; use digital camera to capture images). Use a wide variety of tools and techniques to create art (e.g., use fine-bristled brush to paint fine lines and dots). Begin to revise and expand on ideas by revisiting art projects (e.g., add more detail to a drawing, use another media to elaborate on the original over several days in the art area).
Use the visual arts to represent (not necessarily with appropriate details) a person, place, thing, or event (e.g., draw a picture of Mommy or form a three-dimensional figure using clay). Begin to coordinate the features of objects and their spatial relationship to one another (e.g., eyes are enclosed in circle that represents head, arms are connected to the body). Use details to accurately represent some details of objects, people, places, or things (e.g., pictures of person include clothing, hair, and the correct number of fingers).
Learning Standard 25.B
Display an awareness of some distinct characteristics of the arts.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Describe something in their own creative work (e.g., “I made two pancakes with play dough.”) Describe feelings in response to music or art of self or others (e.g., comment that an upbeat song makes him/her feel happy or that he likes the blue paint his friend used). Show appreciation for the creative work of others (e.g., watch attentively as classmates put on a puppet show or perform with instruments).
Paint a picture and discuss it with a classmate. Comment on another child’s art and ask questions about it, independently or in response to teacher prompts. Comment on the art of professional artists.
Goal 26
Understand that the arts can be used to communicate ideas and emotions.

Learning Standard 26.A
Understand processes, traditional tools, and modern technologies used in the arts.

Learning Standard 26.B
Understand ways to express meaning through the arts.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Create movement to intentionally represent something or portray phenomena (e.g., move like a falling leaf, a bird flying, or a ball bouncing). Create music to accompany activities (e.g., sing and dance during play activities). Create a puppet or mask to portray a character in a story.
Establish a play space for dramatization (e.g., set up chairs for a pretend bus ride). Dramatize an event (e.g., act out going on a field trip to the zoo). Use the visual arts to depict an event (e.g., draw a picture about something that happened on the playground).
Goal 27
Understand the role of the arts in civilizations, past and present.

Learning Standard 27.A
Analyze how the arts function in history, society, and everyday life.

Learning Standard 27.B
Understand how the arts shape and reflect history, society, and everyday life.

Goal 28
Use the home language to communicate within and beyond the classroom.

Learning Standard 28.A
Use the home language at age-appropriate levels for a variety of social and academic purposes.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Use the home language in greetings and other social situations. Answer questions about self in home language. Use the home language to respond to stories, conversations, or share personally meaningful information, such as what the family did over the weekend.
Label elements in family photo (e.g., self, family members, event, location) in the home language. Describe actions in play scenarios and act out familiar role in dramatic play using home language (e.g., mother, grandfather, doctor). Resolve conflicts with another child who speaks the same language using home language (e.g., taking turns on a bike, sharing a doll).
Use one- to two-word utterances to convey an idea in the home language. Use three- to five-word utterances to convey an idea in the home language. Use utterances of five or more words to convey an idea in the home language.
Begin to show some awareness of different languages, communication styles, and/or formats to use in community settings (e.g., home, grocery store, church). Begin to show some awareness of different languages, communication styles, and/or formats to use in early childhood settings (e.g., gym, art, playtime, group times). Use different languages, communication styles, and/or formats to use in early childhood settings and in community settings (e.g., chooses language(s) for play depending upon the peer(s), turns and talks to a peer using appropriate language, talks to adults using appropriate language).
Goal 29
Use the home language to make connections and reinforce knowledge and skills across academic and social areas.

Learning Standard 29.A
Use the home language to attain benchmarks across all the learning areas and to build upon and develop transferable language and literacy skills.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
In home language, retell home routine to understand concept of sequencing (e.g., tell the things done at home before school). In home language, describe what s/he is doing in a play or group experience. In home language, explain a new discovery or understanding acquired through a play or group experience.
With adult support, use one or two English words to communicate about familiar routines. With adult support, attempt to use general and specific English words connected to a specific topic (e.g., butterfly, wing, eye, pretty, fly) with home language in conversations, responses, and/or questions. With adult support, connect vocabulary in home language with English vocabulary (e.g., círculo/circle, más/more, carro/car).
Pretend to read text in home language (e.g., tell the things seen in pictures to read a picture book to a friend in home language). Use knowledge of stories read in home language to answer simple questions in English or the home language (e.g., after completing a picture walk of a book in home language, the child answers questions about characters in the book). Dictate information that includes some details or sequence of events to be written on a piece of work in the home language (e.g., could dictate to a family member, classroom volunteer, or another person who speaks the child’s home language).
Goal 30
Develop self-management skills to achieve school and life success and develop positive relationships with others.

Learning Standard 30.A
Identify and manage one’s emotions and behavior.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Begin to label own basic emotions with teacher assistance (e.g., Teacher: “How does that make you feel when they don’t let you play here?” Child: “That makes me mad.”). Identify the emotions of characters in a storybook (e.g., “How do you think that made her feel when...”?). Use language to express feelings when playing with or negotiating with another child (e.g., “Don’t yell so loud. That scares me.”).
Begin to increase ability to follow early childhood environment rules and procedures (e.g., accept need to wait when interested in playing at the sand table when it is already “full”). Increase ability to control impulses and follow rules (e.g., wait for teacher approval before opening the early childhood environment door to the outdoor play area). State rules as reasons for own behavior and for what other children should do (e.g., “You shouldn’t run in the classroom. You can run outside.”).
Begin to respond appropriately to teacher intervention when not following early childhood environment rules (e.g., stops throwing sand when asked most of the time). Can discuss with teacher reason for teacher intervention when not following classroom rules (e.g., Teacher: “You need to come off the slide now. Do you know why?” Child: “Because I’m climbing up the slide instead of the stairs.”). Accept, with minimal frustration, consequences for not following the rules (e.g., being removed from the water table after repeatedly and intentionally splashing another child).
Begin to use materials safely and with purpose. Use materials safely and with purpose (e.g., put away things in designated locations at cleanup time). Recognize unsafe use of materials and tell an adult.
Learning Standard 30.B
Recognize own uniqueness and personal qualities.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Express likes and dislikes, including favorite foods, colors, or activities. Show confidence in abilities, (e.g., “Look what I can do.” or “Look how far I jumped.) Describe him or her self (e.g., talk about self in terms of looks, gender, family, and interests; complete a self-portrait and describe the picture to the teacher).
Learning Standard 30.C
Demonstrate skills related to successful personal and school outcomes.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Show excitement about new items in the early childhood environment (e.g., express delight over new blocks or science materials or the addition of bubbles in the water table). Ask questions about new items in the early childhood environment (e.g., “How does this work, teacher?”). Ask questions using “who”, “what”, “how”, “why”, “when”, and “what if” to learn about the indoor and outdoor classroom environment.
Use materials or props in novel ways (e.g., use a block as a cell phone or a banana as a microphone). Persistently work toward completing challenging activities and ask for assistance from peers or an adult if needed (e.g., when trying to complete a difficult puzzle or build a complex block structure). Independently seek out solutions to problems (e.g., use tape to combine materials to create new objects for dramatic play or to make a block structure more stable).
Begin to make choices for play activities and follow through with self-direction and independence. Make choices for play activities regularly and follow through with self-direction and independence. Suggest new ideas for play activities and follow through with self-direction and independence.
Stay with one or two tasks that interest him or her for at least 10 minutes each. Stay with more than two tasks that interest him or her for at least 10 minutes each. Sustain engagement with a task that interests him or her for long periods of time (at least 30 minutes) and begin to sustain attention in tasks that are not based on his or her interests (e.g., in a teacher-led small or large group).
Goal 31
Use social-awareness and interpersonal skills to establish and maintain positive relationships.

Learning Standard 31.A
Develop positive relationships with peers and adults.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Ask about another child’s feelings (e.g., “Is she sad that her Mom left?”). Demonstrate sympathy and caring (e.g., comfort a friend who has fallen on the playground). Describe how others are feeling based on their facial expressions, gestures, and what they say.
Greet teachers upon arrival and say goodbye to family members upon departure. Demonstrate affection for familiar adults through hugs, kisses, or making gifts. Engage in reciprocal conversations with familiar adults.
Choose to play with another child more frequently than with others. Develop friendships with peers. Accept that others may have different preferences, such as foods they like, favorite colors, or activities they like to do.
Learning Standard 31.B
Use communication and social skills to interact effectively with others.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Acknowledge another child through a smile or wave when she enters the early childhood environment. Talk with another child in play or other daily activities. Engage in reciprocal conversations with other children throughout the day.
With teacher assistance, communicate with another child to determine roles and activities during play (e.g., Teacher: “Can you tell your friend that you want to help him build his road?” Child: “Can I build with you?”). Communicate with another child to determine roles and activities during cooperative play (e.g., talk with classmate to decide who will be the nurse during dramatic play, talk with classmate to come up with a plan for setting the table together). Follow through with cooperative actions after communicating with another child to determine roles and activities during cooperative play (e.g., act out roles in doctor/nurse play, set the table together).
Respond to teacher request to help or share (e.g., responding to request to help teacher and children clean up the block area). Interact in socially appropriate ways with peers, such as helping and sharing (e.g., assist another child with a puzzle, share blocks with a classmate). Interact in socially appropriate ways with peers and adults, such as helping and sharing (e.g., offer help to adult in getting the paints cleaned up).
Learning Standard 31.C
Demonstrate an ability to prevent, manage, and resolve interpersonal conflicts in constructive ways.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Respond positively to teacher reminders to share materials and take turns most of the time. Keep play going with another child by sharing materials most of the time. Take turns with another child when materials are limited (e.g., share microscope with classmate, each taking turns to look at objects).
Respond positively to teacher assistance in solving a conflict with another child. Attempt to resolve conflicts to keep play going with another child. Suggest solutions to conflicts (e.g., propose to classmate: “You play with these cars, and I can use these trucks.”).
Begin to accept adult help when needed to resolve conflict. Accept adult help when needed to resolve conflict. Ask an adult for help when needed (e.g., seek out a teacher when another child is being physically aggressive).
Goal 32
Demonstrate decision‐making skills and behaviors in personal, school, and community contexts.

Learning Standard 32.A
Begin to consider ethical, safety, and societal factors in making decisions.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Accept reminders from teacher about why rules exist. Participate in a discussion about how throwing objects in the early childhood environment is dangerous. Discuss how hitting others is not allowed because it can hurt others.
Follow an early childhood environment rule with teacher reminder. Follow more than one early childhood environment rule with teacher reminder. Follow simple early childhood environment rules independently much of the time.
Learning Standard 32.B
Apply decision‐making skills to deal responsibly with daily academic and social situations.

Example Performance Descriptors

EXPLORING DEVELOPING BUILDING
Stop actions and listen to teacher discuss alternative solutions to hitting someone. Participate in a discussion with a teacher about alternative solutions to hitting someone who has taken a toy. Offer solutions to problems (e.g., “I am using these; you can use those.”).
Learning Standard 32.C
Contribute to the well‐being of one’s school and community.